Annotated References

Anderson, J.T., Space Concepts Through Aestheometry, Aestheometry, Inc., Artesia, NM, 1968. A classic view of 3D stringing patterns, largely from inside cylindrical surfaces, from the 1960s/1970s string crafts era.


Eales, Brian & Patricia, Stringcraft in 3D, Search Press, London, 1976.  A how to book with many 3D designs from the 1970s string art era.


Fischer, Gerd, Mathematische Modelle, Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, 1986.  Subtitled Mathematical Models From the Collections of Universities and Museums, this is an extensive collection including 132 photographs, some of which are classic string models.


Jansen, Mark, The Art of Thread Design, Open Door Enterprises, Inc., Campbell, CA, 1974.  Contains some very pretty 3D designs on cut wood dowel frames.


Lockwood, E. H., A Book of Curves, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1961. The classic book on 2D mathematical curves.


Lyng, M. J., Dancing Curves: A Dynamic Demonstration of Geometric Principles, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1978. A small but classic introduction to the addition of lighting to demonstrate the intersection of planes of light with string sculptures.


Nash, Steven and Merkert, Jörn, editors, Naum Gabo: Sixty Years of Constructivism, Prestel-Verlag, 1985. This book contains a large collection of photographs of Naum Gabo’s beautiful string sculpture work.


Pedoe, D., Geometry and the Visual Arts, Dover, New York, 1983 (a republication of Geometry and the Liberal Arts, St. Martin’s Press, 1976).  Good for explanations of 2D mathematical equations.


Pohl, V., How to Enrich Geometry Using String Designs, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA, 1986.  A well-illustrated guide to making both 2D and 3D string designs.


Press, David, String Sculpture, International Society of the Arts, Mathematics, and Architecture, Hyperseeing Magazine, Spring2009. Online at An introduction to his 3D work.


Press, David, String Sculpture – New Work, International Society of the Arts, Mathematics, and Architecture, Hyperseeing Magazine, Summer 2010. Online at Recent work from Press with a classification system for stringing patterns.


Rogers, M. C., Space Geometrics, Its Application to the Study of Mathematics, Cooper Brothers, Port Washington, NY, 1969.  A colorfully illustrated introduction using plastic circles and pegboard-like x, y and z coordinate planes to produce beautiful 3D string sculptures


Royal Society (London) and Science Museum (Great Britain), Intersections: Henry Moore and Stringed Surfaces, Royal Society, 2012. This is the catalog of the 2012 show of Henry Moore’s works alongside models from Theodore Olivier.


Sidlina, Natalia, Naum Gabo, Tate, London, 2013. An amusing, thoughtful and insightful book on Gabo by a major Gabo researcher at the Tate Gallery. Contains a fine photo collection of his work.


Stone, W. C., The Olivier Models, Friends of the Union College Library, Schenectady, NY, 1969.  Presenting the models of Theodore Olivier from the Union College mathematics department collection.   Angela Vierling-Claasen is simply the most complete resource on mathematical models to be found on the web.  Excellent mathematical 2D stringing based directly on Dan Pedoe’s book. National curves bank  A website devoted to the latest work of David Press.  Famous curves index   This University of Arizona mathematics department website presents an extensive photographic collection of historical mathematical models. Included is a 3D string sculpture set of ruled surfaces made by Richard P. Baker in the late 1800s to early 1900s.    This University of Groningen site presents many of the mathematical string models from Martin Schilling from the early 1900s. A second source of the Henry Moore Intersections exhibit from 2012 as the download from The Royal Society was not working at the time of this writing.  Intersections – Henry Moore and Stringed Surfaces was a 2012 exhibition of some of Henry Moore’s stringed work and historical models from the London Science Museum that inspired Moore. Their downloadable .pdf catalogue of the event is informative and beautiful. Don’t miss it.  The amazing 2D work of John Eichinger.   David Press’s site which explores the contributions of mathematicians and artists in the creation of 3D string sculptures.  This site shows the Tate Gallery’s beautiful collection of Gabo’s work. Under SEARCH key in “mathematical model” for a series of more than 10 classic mathematical models books from late 19th century to early 20th century. Complete books in PDF format.

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